Source: Journal of Administrative Management
Author: Sendy Thahir
The report prepared for the Customer Relations Management Division was to give ideas for Tyrone Power- Spencer Tracey and Associates (TPSTA) due to their plan to expand the Customer Relations Management Division and moving to the new premises.
The scope of the report was to explain the design of open plan office and layout. In detail, it is describing about the steps taken to ensure provision of a healthy, safe, secure and ergonomically sound work environment, including explanation of the air, seeing, hearing and surface environment. The other important thing in the report, was giving any preliminary design advice and how the features have integrated the latest technological innovations. Every of the design will also reflect the approach to the leadership and management
The detailed pictures for the office layout are attached to give more understanding of the concept. Based on the requirement, we are designing the room for CCC, RMO, BDF room, including the room for their managers, group leader, administrative staff, their meeting room and training room. Gymnasium, shared lunch room, toilet, server room and store room are also being designed as an additional facility that the office should have.
The recommendations for the office may be vary, but we are choosing the best recommendations to make some efficiency to reduce the cost on improving those factors. Adding up some purifier to clean up the air, and choose a reliable cleaning service to clean the room from dusk and dirt. Security camera will be ready 24 hours for the safety reason, and also by changing the monitor screen to LCD screen might be very good for the healthy eyes and body.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 5
1.1 Authorisation 5
1.2 Limitations 5
1.3 Scope of the report 6
2. Explanation of Preliminary design advice 6
2.1 Customer Contact Centre 6
2.2 Relation Management Office 6
2.3 Business Data Facility 7
2.5 Store Room 7
2.6 Shared Lunch Room 8
2.7 Toilet Facilities 8
2.8 Training Room 8
2.9 Meeting Room 8
2.10 Gymnasium 9
3. Latest Technological Innovative 9
4. Explanation of the air, seeing, hearing and surface environment 10
4.1 Air 10
4.2 Seeing 10
4.3 Hearing 11
4.4 Surface environments 11
5. Office Ergonomics, Healthy and Safety Factor 12
5.1 Noise 12
5.2 Lighting 12
5.3 Air 13
5.4 Workstations and Hardware’s 13
5.5 Safe and Secure Environment 13
6. How office design reflects the approach of leadership and management 14
7. Conclusion 14
8. Recommendations 15
9. Referencing 17
10. Appendices 2 18
The report is authorized by Ms Janette Powell as the director of Customer Relations Management Division (CRMD). The purposes of this report are to give open plan office design and layout to create a healthy, secure and productive office environment for the new office that will be subsequently used by the architects.
We are always trying our best to create the best open plan office for the organization, even though there are some limitation on conducting the plan because there will always be a disadvantages or different point of view on how people will feel, if we create the room as we have planned. Another thing that was, If we try to make the office as good as possible, the office might experience to pay the expense higher for every of the decoration.
1.3 Scope of the report
The scope of the report is to explain the design of open plan office and layout. In detail, it is describing about the steps taken to ensure provision of a healthy, safe, secure and ergonomically sound work environment, including explanation of the air, seeing, hearing and surface environment. The other important thing in the report, was giving any preliminary design advice and how the features have integrated the latest technological innovations. Every of the design, will also reflect the approach to the leadership and management
For the primary data, we would be using the administrative office management text books that are written by Pattie Odgers.
the secondary data will be obtained by reading, discussing, analysing the journals and credible sources that support very much for the report, it might comes from the internet, such as emerald insight, green engineer, interior design, building interior and etc.
2. Explanation of Preliminary design advice 2.1 Customer Contact Centre
The open plan CCC room will accommodate the CCC manager, operations manager, administration officer and technical support officer, as well as three team leaders and twenty four customer contact officer room. The main reason is to create an effective communication in one department. CCC itself defines ‘central point in an enterprise from which all customer contacts are managed’ (Techtarget 2009). The meeting room is also located in the customer contact centre room; the further detail will be explained on the meeting room part. The customer contact centre room is located on the right side of the building with the area of the building 23,925 m by 12,905 m.
With the Administration office room 4, 5 by 3, 3367 m, CCC manager room 4, 5 m by 3, 3367 m, Technical support and operation manager room 3, 2627 m by 3, 3367 m.
2.2 Relation Management Office
The relation management office is located between the CCC room and BDF room. The relation management office consist of one manager room, two team leaders and their 22 two seats for the employees. The relation management plays a very important role to create and maintain relationship with the customers, investors, share holders and employees. The area of the room will be 23,925 by 12, 905 metres.
With RMO manager room 3, 7716 m by 3, 3367 m, Group leader room 4, 1327 m by 3, 3367 m, BDF manager room 5, 8744 m by 3, 3367 m.
2.3 Business Data Facility
The business data facility room consist of one manager room and seats for twenty staff that work in the business data facility department. The room is located near the server’s room otherwise they can make a direct contact with the servers. The meeting room are also located in the business data facility room so that in this department they can conduct a meeting in advance, without using the other department meeting room.
The area of the room will be 23,925 m by 12, 905 m
With BDF manager room 5, 873 m by 3, 3367 m.
2.4 Server Room
Server room that are located in the middle of the office was purposely to efficient the length of the wire that are connected to the other room that need a connection with it. Server room kept the customer databases that are needed for organizational purpose. It also controls the telecommunication, electricity and connectivity in the office. The area of the server room will be ten metres by ten metres.
2.5 Store Room
Store room that are located on the left side of the building, behind the shared lunch room, are divided into two areas. The one is for putting the food for the employees that eat in the office such as wheat, flour, sugar, coffee, tea, rice and etc, the other part is for keeping the office equipment, document and any other things that are related in the office need. The sizes of the store room are ten metres by five metres.
2.6 Shared Lunch Room
The project managers design the seat for the shared lunch room for forty people. Was located on the left side of the building, purposely was for the employees that need to have a lunch in the office. We design the place as a nice place to relax because the employees need a place to withdraw a while from the business in the office. That is one of the reasons why we put a television inside. More over, the designs are more likely to a cafeteria. The area of the room will be 11, 6 m by 15, 225 m
2.7 Toilet Facilities
Toilet is the most important facilities that every building should have, because every people need to make an output from his body. The toilets were located behind the server room because it is accessible from the main office in the building. The area of the building is 4, 991, 97 m by 3, 99358 m
The toilet room is separated to avoid sexual harassments in the office.
2.8 Training Room
As usual some company are providing the training room for their employees for their development, ‘when employees know what they are supposed to do, they behave more effectively’ (Gilbert 2000) that is the reason why the manager requests to provide the training room for CCC, RMO and BDF. The room is available for 15 people for people that will be trained and the area are 4, 92 m by 10, 2030 m.
2.9 Meeting Room
Locating the meeting room is one of the challenges for the project manager, because it really needs a strategic location for the employees that have to go to the room. We purposely design the room behind the manager, administrative officer and technical support room otherwise the employees can gather in advance without disturbing the other employees from other department. These cases also happened to Business Data Facility and Relation Management room. The area of each meeting room is 6, 525 m by 13, 0454 m.
Gymnasium is one of the facilities that the offices have. The employees can use the facilities before or after work in the office. There’s a philosophy in Indonesia stating that inside the healthy body, there are a healthy soul. Which means the facility would really give benefit for the employees. The area of the gymnasium will be twenty metres by twenty metres.
3. Latest Technological Innovative
Change have become the common thing in this scientific era, at the past people use letter to make a communication from one places to the other places. Nowadays, the occurrence of the internet since the World War 2, have become the technology that is really useful to exchange information, to learn and communicate easily with other people through out the world. Now email have become the trend in communication, especially used for a proposal, report, feedback, communicate and any other things that will light the task of the people.
Making telephone calls can be an expense for the company in every month that cannot be avoidable. More over the transportation and accommodations expense will be claimed by the employees to the company, when they have task to do in different area. Today technology have developed the voice call to video conference call, that allow people communicate from one to another that can thrust the time and space that result the efficiency in making a communication and negotiation. In example, people can do the study interview with one university in United States by video call or video conference. Any other cases, was when bill gates was asked to make a speech on some occasions, the audience can see him make a presentation by video conference while he was in holiday in Hawaii.
4. Explanation of the air, seeing, hearing and surface environment
The basic thing in our live is to know that we need air to breathe like oxygen then we blow the carbon dioxide back as the process off breathing. That is one of the reasons why the air circulations play a prominent role. The dust can also be the factors that influence the work convenience in the office. A new Cornell study finds that ‘Workers in poorly ventilated offices are twice as likely to report the symptoms of sick building syndrome’ (Hedge 1998) which means the employees that are working in the bad air circulation office may have higher tendency to suffer allergies, migraines, and stress because of the inconvenient, sensitivity to odours and any other impacts. With the bad experienced that the workers have, it may result the work cannot be accomplished in a good way, moreover the bad performance can lead to the bankruptcy of the company or organizations. This must be prevented by managing the air factors to increase the work productivity; the solution for this problem will be explained on the recommendations part.
Seeing clearly related very much on the lighting factors, in the office, the sun light cannot get into in, that is one of the reasons why we need light to see. most people don’t understand the importance of lighting factor, they work in the poor lighting room, this situation might result ‘Headaches, indigestion, nausea, blurred or double vision, flickering sensations, itching and burning eyes, tension, and vision fatigue’ (SCIF 2008)
Every of the side effect might result very much on the employee’s productivity.
Seeing computer in a very long time or glare on monitor screens might result more serious problem to eyes and body circulation, that’s why the office have to design a good office design for the employees, the one who understand needs to give any advice for person that still don’t know how to prevent those side effect. When these problems have been solutes, it can be very good for the employees either to the company to reach the company objectives.
Prevention ways must be taken to improve the productivity; the cases of lighting factors have been studied as a very important factor in office ergonomics. The solution for the seeing factors will be explained more on the recommendations part.
To make a communication, hearing can be considered as a very important factor, people can interact from one to another by using a voice, but there’s an unexpected sound that can be named as a noise. ‘The noise or hum of office equipment definitely makes us tired’ (Szafarz 2008), the statement above tells that the noise or hum can make the employees get tired, more over the concentration of the employees can be blurred in the noisy office. That is one of the reasons why hearing is one of the ergonomics factor. There are many tips to create the hearing factors in the office be more effective without disturbing others that are not related in the communication or others that are not expecting such annoying noise in the office in example phone ring or hand phone ring tones.
Whispering can be one of the tips to make a communication with others without disturbing people or other employees. More recommendations will be explained further.
4.4 Surface environments
The design of office room starting from the table, chair, fan, air condition, pictures frame, dust bins, plants and any other things include the room colour or design, will really impact the convenience staying and working at the office or not. To create such expected & based on the right ergonomics factor, the project manager have to think and analyse the right ways to design the surface environments of the office. It is not talking the premium class office but considering the ergonomics factor.
5. Office Ergonomics, Healthy and Safety Factor
Office ergonomics itself are ‘the nature relationship between the employee and their duties.’(Odgers 2005, pp.73) Office ergonomics have been studied very much in order to achieve the best productivity on the office environment.
There are several steps that can be taken to ensure provision of a healthy, safe, secure, productive work environment, which are:
‘Disturbing noise can result in tiredness and a drop in performance’ (Av 2005)
This means that the noise can really disturb the employees work, this can be strengthen by the research from American Society of Interior Designers that ‘70% employees said that they will be more productive if there were no noise distractions’(Odgers 2005, pp. 374). Of course there are some prevention ways by the understanding from each co workers about the importance of working in a quieter office environment. By whispering while we need to talk, go to a discussion room to discuss rather than discussing near the employees that are working. Modify the ringing tone of the phone or the cell phone to the minimum volume. The most importance thing is to reduce maximally the noise that will distract others.
The lighting factors considered as an important factor, because it relate a lot to our eyes. ‘Give people too much light, and they’ll become disoriented, take away light they’ll show signs of depression.’ (Odgers 2005, pp.374) the statement above tells that the lighting must not be too bright or too dim. By providing some windows that allow the light to get in the office can be a very good step taken considering the lighting factors. If it is too bright the employees can rather close the curtain and opened up the desk lamp for their pleasant on their working.
Bad air quality may result ‘encompass eyen nose, throat and skin irritation, headache, fatigue, dizziness, difficulty in concentration and shortness of breath. (Odgers 2005, pp.375). The god air quality may let the employees work in a normal way, but in bad air situation, it may result very much on the lack ness of employee productivity. The employees can be on leave for certain reason, more over if the employees are ill they can ask for the illness compensation, which result an additional expense for the company. This can be prevented by hiring the cleaning service that is reliable; these cases can also be prevented by using air purifier. As we know purifiers can clean up the air three times per hour.’ (Odgers 2005, pp.373)
5.4 Workstations and Hardware’s
Employees that are working in the office have to spend eight hour of their time in a day to sit and work in their room. To provide the convenience and comfortable in the working environment, the design of the table, chair, computer, mouse pointer and any other stuff that are used by the employees must be created based on their comfortable position. In example: the monitor of a computer must be positioned not too near to the employee eyes about 18-24 inches or the chair should be adjustable to fit our body height, because according to Odgers, ‘a workstation designed for the employee’s size helps the employee be more productive and feel less fatigue. (Odgers 2005, pp.375)
5.5 Safe and Secure Environment
Safety can be considered very much as the basic needs of every human being. ‘The violence by strangers, customers, co workers and personal relation are the type of security issues in the office.’ (Odgers 2005, pp.388) As we know, the bad attitude from other workers until the threat from the terrorist, have pushed the security department to consider more on their performance. By checking the bags from the employees when they enter and exit to the office with a garret, can help to make a safe and secure environment. Providing some fire extinguisher can be a good step in preventing the fire, burning the document or the office. CCTV security camera can be located in the entrance or some location to view the activities of the workers as the step to create the safe and secure environment.
6. How office design reflects the approach of leadership and management
The success of leadership and management process can be determined by the capability of the managers on their managerial skills; however there are some factors that support the managerial approach such as the morale of the employees on establishing their task.
The morale of employees can be improved by designing the office in a right way.
There’s a resource from the internet, stating that ‘The office design can support the organization and the business objectives.’ (Moser 2008) This means the design of the office that is made can create the work efficiency and effectiveness. When the affectivity and effectiveness are met then the business objectives can be accomplished. With the advantages gain from the office design, managers can perform their task and duties easier, starting from planning their vision, controlling their staffs, organizing their members to perform in a good ways and lead them purposely to know are the employees are moving on the right track or not, where as the employees are working on the comfortable and expected environment how it was related was because ‘how people respond in particular situations and how the behaviours impact the business goals.’ (Mmoser 2008) By having a good office design, it can give advantages for every of the staffs member, moreover with the appliance of the good office design, the employees can absorb every of the information’s that the managers gave easier; otherwise the working activity can flow in a better way. In example; why do we design the CCC room not separated from the manager, operations manager, administration officer and the technical support officer, was because in this department, one and another can make a communications easier.
In conclusion, the report explains the factors that needed to create the good working environment. By considering the ergonomics factor, it can be best to design the desired office environment and also not forget to include the air, seeing, hearing and surface environments factor. By following the suggestion, it would result the work effectiveness and efficiency for the employee, where as they work in a pleasant condition where their safety and healthy are guaranteed by the good working environment. The report researched and explained are based on the Journal articles, Internet site and text books to strengthen some of the argument that result the decision that will be made by the researcher, manager and owner lead to the satisfaction for the best of the organization.
To improve the company productivity, creativity, affectivity and efficiency some improvements are needed to achieve all of these factors, which are:
• For the hearing affectivity, the employees should conduct a discussion / negotiation in the negotiation room or meeting room, so it would not disturbed the concentration of the other employee.
• Lowering down the volume of the telephone calls/ mobile phone until the minimum level, otherwise the ringing tone will not bother the other employees. It would be best to change the ringing tone alert to the vibrating alert.
• Put some additional carpets to absorb the noise made at the office can also be an alternatives to redeemed the noise factor in the office.
• To create the good air in the office, the discipline must be applied by all the employees, it can be fulfilled by avoiding them to smoke or eat certain foods in the office.
• The role of the cleaning services cannot also be avoidable, because of their task in cleaning the dusk or dirt in the office that are related in the air quality in the office.
• Other solution such as add up some air purifier can create the room cleaner and more comfortable.
• Setting up the light and make the lamp not too bright or too dim, because the inefficient light can create the eye problem or fatigue.
• Liquid Crystal Display screen for the computers are preferable otherwise the employees might not be suffering from the eyes problem.
• Change the light into the fluorescent lighting with the energy consumption 55 watts, it also help the employees to take care of their eyes and help the company to reduce the electricity cost in a month.
• Eye fatigue cannot be avoidable; nowadays the Chinese traditional therapy such as giving a massage at the face have become the latest trend where as the massage will relaxing our eyes, and create a good blood circulation.
• Blinking the eyes will help the eyes to produce lubricants, with it the eyes can barrier the radiation from outside.
• For the security issue, creating a regulation that let the employees to wear a card identity would really help to avoid the unauthorized personnel that come to spy at the office.
• Security camera might be an important factor to surveillance the activity of each person in the office.
Callcentre-guidelines-short (n.d), viewed 3 January 2009
Hedge, A 1998, 'Bad Office Air, Not Bad Vibes, May Cause Many Symptoms of Sick Building Syndrome, A New Cornell Study Finds', viewed 25 December 2008
Joanna 2005, 'Wrightway Workstation', viewed 13 January 2000
Mmoser associates 2008, creating office for people, viewed 5 January 2009
Odgers, P 2005, 'Administrative Office Management’, 13th edn, Thomson/South-Western, Mason, Ohio
Szafarz, M 2008, 'The Healthy Office Formula', viewed 26 December 2008
TechTarget 2009, contact centre, viewed 13 January 2009
Source : Wrightway W
The above pictures explain about how the proportional thing that need to be applied in the individual workstation. We can see, that the chair need to be adjustable, for the sitting convenience. Where as the employees will have to sit in a very long time a day. The picture expresses the proper seeing, there is 20 cm between the monitor and employees eyes. The design was purposely to avoid the risk of glare, that can slowly damage employee eyes.